Introduction:
The Civil War marked one of the great defining moments in U.S. history. Although what happened before that, life before the Civil War. Before the Civil there were thousands of slaves in the south. Life in the south was mostly farms and plantations. The No rth had factories and industries. The North believed slavery was wrong, but the south was strongly against that belief. Life was hard for a slave before the Civil war, in the South that is. They labored on plantations and farms which required much more exhausting work. Machines in the South were a little complicated, but looked very dangerous and exhausting. Machines in the North looked a little complicated and dangerous but just required a little time. Life before the Civil War was different for the North and the South.

Weaver at work- North
Weaver at work- North
A Cotton Press- South
A Cotton Press- South


Lieutenant Talbot
The Lieutenant Talbot was a newspaper that warned Southern Democrats that it is likely that the squatter sovereign Senator Douglas will be nominated as candidate for the presidency at the upcoming Democratic convention. Article asks that the South send only the most loyal Southerners to the convention.
The Baltimore paper complained that the secessionists have asked for a truce and are now using the time the U.S. government has granted them to build up fortifications and raise an army.

Technology made before the civil war: Both sides made use of recent technological advances. Among the most important was the rifled musket carried by most infantrymen on both sides and ironclad war ships that saw action on a broad scale. In 1846-1848 and other conflicts before that, troops largely used smooth bore muskets. Smooth bores are not very accurate beyond 150 yards, and so opposing armies equipped with them had to be placed very close to one another. In the Civil War , smooth bores gave way to rifled muskets. Rifled muskets have grooves on the inside of their barrels that put spin on bullets, giving them a maximum range of about 500 yards. The rifled musket was actually invented 400 years before the Civil War, but the technology was not widely utilized As important as new technologies were to the Civil War , it bears noting that new scientific developments did not find their way into all aspects of the conflict, even when they easily could have. The most notable failures were in the area of medicine. Anesthesia was developed by an American dentist more than a decade before the war started. In the 1850s, European doctors began to speak of germ theory, stressing the importance of using clean hands and instruments to perform medical procedures. Nonetheless, these ideas were not embraced by the Civil War medical establishment. As a result, countless thousands of soldiers suffered agonizing pain while undergoing amputations and thousands of others died of unnecessary infections.
Some other known technology were.

1840 Kerosene lamps first used
1840 Patent for telegraph granted in USA
1841 Ordnance Survey Act provided surveyors with legal access rights to all land for
1844 First telegraph key invented
1845 Faraday effect first noted on plane polarized light
1846 The cylinder printing press is invented
1848 Kelvin develops his temperature scale
1850 Robert Bunsen invents the Bunsen burner
1851 Charles Babbage invented the occulting telegraph
1854 Hallway windmill for pumping water invented
1856 Bessemer process for steel production introduced
1860 Internal combustion engine developed by Lenoir
1860 Patent for resistance welding granted


The Franklin Railroad

When refrigerator cars became known, they were used to transport food like meat, fruit, and vegetables. People started using trains to travel (shopping, business, vacations, and to go to and from work). Soldiers during the Civil War used trains to go to hospitals if they were wounded, or go to a place where they fight.
Railroads were destroyed between Hanover Junction and Harrisburg, and many miles of track torn up on the Cumberland Valley & Franklin Railroads. As railroads were needed more by armies, more roads were tore up to build railroads instead. “During the war, seventeen railroads were run at different times in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, by Government, at a cost of nearly five millions of dollars, and using seventy-two engines and 1,733 cars; at the close of the war, these were all returned to their owners.”

The Franklin Railroad was nameless for many years. It started as an organization where citizens helped runaway slaves escape through the Underground Railroad. “The lines of flight lay principally through Pennsylvania, New York, New England, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, literally grid ironing the country in some sections.” Philadelphia was more congested than any other railway. The citizens contributed to the railroad as “conductors”, “stockholders”, and “station agents”. “A former Malone resident whose memory extended back to 1845 stated a few years ago that many of the negroes to whom Gerrit Smith deeded homes in the town of Franklin reached their properties via Malone, having come here by way of Plattsburgh or Ogdersburg; and mingled in the throng, which was composed mainly of free blacks, was hid now and then an escaped slave.”




Gas Lighting

This is a newspaper article. It talks about how Augusta County celebrates having lights around the town.
Lighting up the Town
Summary: Celebrates the lighting of the town by gas, and thanks Messrs. Waterhouse and Bowes for their work.
(Names in announcement: Mr. Waterhouse, Mr. Bowes)
Full Text of Article: Somehow or other we have neglected heretofore to notice the determination of our "City Fathers" to light up the town with gas. We are delighted at this, and congratulate our citizens on the opportunity they will soon have to walk the streets of dark nights without imminent risk of breaking necks or limbs. We think the town owes a lasting debt of gratitude to Messrs. Waterhouse & Bowes, the gentlemanly, liberal-minded contractors, for the energetic manner in which they have prosecuted this work.

Wills
We looked at two wills: one from a northern plantation owner and one from a southern farmer and after thoroughly inspecting these two wills we have come to several intriguing conclusions. As unbelievable as it may sound both the northerner and the southerner had slave that they either sold or auctioned off. The northerner was much wealthier than the southerner. They both had valuables and personal belongings. The northerner had his will professionally written by a lawyer and the southerner was just the written account of his items being auctioned. You might imagine southerners being rich plantation owners but only about 14% had slaves 5% of those slave owners had plantations.

New Enterprise
· 1858 was the Colorado gold rush which opened up a whole new enterprise.

coloradogoldrush.jpg












One new enterprise before the civil war was a clothing store that was exclusively for ladies. It was opened in Staunton. They could finally purchase things without being exposed to masculine eyes. It was so they could purchase unmentionable “fixings”.